wallet - I can't find my bitcoin address and my bitcoin ...

small passive income while browsing the web

Introduction
If you were on the internet in the late 1990s, you might remember companies like "AllAdvantage" that promised to pay you to browse the web. You could install a program that tracked your browsing and showed you targeted ads at the top of the screen, then "AllAdvantage" would give you a cut of the ad revenue you generated.
These schemes largely disappeared after the dot-com crash. But Brendan Eich, the creator of the JavaScript programming language and cofounder and former CTO of Mozilla, thinks his company Brave Software has found a way to revive that old idea.
What is it?
Brave makes a browser based on Google Chrome that blocks tracking scripts and other technologies that spy on your online activity. As a result, it also blocks many web ads; if you visit any website using the Brave browser, you won’t see any ads. But Brave will give users the option to see ads that Eich says will respect your privacy. The ads will appear as desktop notifications, he says, not as replacements for the ads the Brave browser blocks. So you still won’t see ads on any website, but you might see them on the right lower corner of your screen. If you choose to see these ads, you’ll get 70 percent of the revenue they generate.
Eich hopes Brave can solve two of the web's most vexing problems the privacy and revenue problem by turning the traditional digital advertising model on its head. Today, ad networks pay sites for ad space and web browsers like Brave and Chrome deliver content from those publishers to users. Brave is trying to put the browser in the center of the advertising experience. Instead of paying publishers directly, ad networks would pay Brave, which will pass part of the money to users and keep a cut for itself.
By handling advertising in the browser on your device, Brave says it will be able to target ads without sending your data to the cloud, and protect your privacy. When you interact with an ad on Brave, the browser sends notice to the company's servers, but doesn't include any identifying information. Eich sees four sets of winners: browser makers get paid; users get paid, and get more privacy; advertisers can target pitches without running afoul of European privacy regulations; and publishers can survive in a world where many users are installing ad blockers.
Publishers and ad networks might bristle at the idea of putting browser makers in the middle of their business. But in recent years browsers have taken a more active role in shaping the web, instead of merely displaying a website’s content. Chrome now blocks ads on a small number of sites with particularly egregious advertising practices, while browsers like Firefox and Safari have added privacy protections. Meanwhile, browser plugins are giving users more control over their experience. There are Chrome extensions, for example, that let you change Facebook's color scheme, or change the way images are displayed on Pinterest. And of course there are extensions that block all ads.
Trying to win advertisers and publishers to a new model isn't Brave's only challenge. It also needs users. Eich says Brave has 15 million users and is growing.
Brave will give users a 70 percent cut of its advertising revenue, which Eich estimates could work out to about $10 a month. Brave will pay users with its own bitcoin-style "cryptocurrency” called Basic Attention Tokens or BAT, which has traded for as little as 24 cents over the past 12 months, according to CoinMarketCap. You can exchange the BAT you have received for viewing ads into USD, EUR, GBP, CHF and many more currencies.
The company offers a service through the cryptocurrency exchange Uphold to allow users to change, sell and buy BAT or donate it to publishers, and for publishers to exchange the BAT they receive for dollars. Advertisers like HomeDepot or recent campaigns included brands such as Verizon, Newegg, Chipotle, and PayPal/Honey, in addition to earlier campaigns by Amazon, Harry’s Razors, Intel, CBS, KIND snacks, Logitech, Lenovo, Grubhub, Belkin, Quickbooks, Evernote and some of cryptocurrency related companies, will be able to buy ads either with BAT or with traditional currencies.
Eich says Brave opted to create its own tokens using the Ethereum cryptocurrency platform in part to avoid regulatory requirements, such as verifying users' identifies, that partners like Uphold are better equipped to handle.
Estimated revenue? (depending on the country you live in the revenue can be higher or lower)
I made around 3oo$ so far this year using 3 devices, just for viewing some ads.
5 months so far july is not included if you calculate it down for 1 device, 100$/5months = 20$ a month just for viewing ads, you would need to buy risky stocks worth of 2000$ to get the same amount per month.
can only recommend everyone to try it, not every country has the same number of advertisers so you probably get the most out of it when you live in the USA.
If you are interested here is a quick guide how to set it up to get the max amount out of Brave:
Quickstartguide:
1 Download brave here
2 Activate the reward system (gif link below)Gif link
3 go into the settings an deactivate auto contribution and activate 5 ads per hour (image link below)image link
4 Create an Account on Uphold and connect it with your BraveBrowser.
Now you are good to go and can make some money on something you do anyway.
I hope this helps some folks in the community to make some extra bucks.
edit1:you can find more infos and support here:brave_browser & BATProject or www.brave.com
edit2:the earnings are depenging on the number of devices you are using and were you are living. Best paying countries: United States (69) United Kingdom (39) Canada (36) Australia (35) New Zealand (26) Germany (21) Ireland (21) France (18)( the number next to the country are the companies that are running ads on brave for this particular country, the more companies the more revenue )
you can find a full list with all countries and campaigns here: https://brave.com/transparency/
edit3:You don't need to browse to a certain website to receive ads, just browse as you are used to, play browser games, watch videos on youtube or do whatever you want.Sometimes Ads appear on the startpage looks like that https://i.imgur.com/5tohhRc.jpg and after some time on the right lower corner a clickable pop-up appears looks like that->https://i.imgur.com/CTGdVsu.png
edit4:If you want to import your bookmarks and settings from your old browser:on the right top corner of the browser is a button ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg click it > than on settings > and than you got the option to import bookmarks and settings from your old browser.
If you want to sync brave between devices and for backups:type brave://flags/ into the adressbar and than brave sync into the search bar and acticate itif its enabled it should look like this https://imgur.com/a/tCMDgDjthan just click on sync ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg
here is a guide ->https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360021218111-How-do-I-set-up-Sync
edit5: Don't keep your BAT from free token grants to long in your browser, always send your bat to an external wallet or exchange like uphold, only tokens from free token grants have an expire date if they dont get used they go back to the bat pool. you can find more infos about this here -> https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360018305731-Why-does-my-BAT-have-an-expiration-date-
submitted by OnlyReveal6 to beermoneyglobal [link] [comments]

small passive income while browsing the web

Introduction
If you were on the internet in the late 1990s, you might remember companies like "AllAdvantage" that promised to pay you to browse the web. You could install a program that tracked your browsing and showed you targeted ads at the top of the screen, then "AllAdvantage" would give you a cut of the ad revenue you generated.
These schemes largely disappeared after the dot-com crash. But Brendan Eich, the creator of the JavaScript programming language and cofounder and former CTO of Mozilla, thinks his company Brave Software has found a way to revive that old idea.
What is it?
Brave makes a browser based on Google Chrome that blocks tracking scripts and other technologies that spy on your online activity. As a result, it also blocks many web ads; if you visit any website using the Brave browser, you won’t see any ads. But Brave will give users the option to see ads that Eich says will respect your privacy. The ads will appear as desktop notifications, he says, not as replacements for the ads the Brave browser blocks. So you still won’t see ads on any website, but you might see them on the right lower corner of your screen. If you choose to see these ads, you’ll get 70 percent of the revenue they generate.
Eich hopes Brave can solve two of the web's most vexing problems the privacy and revenue problem by turning the traditional digital advertising model on its head. Today, ad networks pay sites for ad space and web browsers like Brave and Chrome deliver content from those publishers to users. Brave is trying to put the browser in the center of the advertising experience. Instead of paying publishers directly, ad networks would pay Brave, which will pass part of the money to users and keep a cut for itself.
By handling advertising in the browser on your device, Brave says it will be able to target ads without sending your data to the cloud, and protect your privacy. When you interact with an ad on Brave, the browser sends notice to the company's servers, but doesn't include any identifying information. Eich sees four sets of winners: browser makers get paid; users get paid, and get more privacy; advertisers can target pitches without running afoul of European privacy regulations; and publishers can survive in a world where many users are installing ad blockers.
Publishers and ad networks might bristle at the idea of putting browser makers in the middle of their business. But in recent years browsers have taken a more active role in shaping the web, instead of merely displaying a website’s content. Chrome now blocks ads on a small number of sites with particularly egregious advertising practices, while browsers like Firefox and Safari have added privacy protections. Meanwhile, browser plugins are giving users more control over their experience. There are Chrome extensions, for example, that let you change Facebook's color scheme, or change the way images are displayed on Pinterest. And of course there are extensions that block all ads.
Trying to win advertisers and publishers to a new model isn't Brave's only challenge. It also needs users. Eich says Brave has 15 million users and is growing.
Brave will give users a 70 percent cut of its advertising revenue, which Eich estimates could work out to about $10 a month. Brave will pay users with its own bitcoin-style "cryptocurrency” called Basic Attention Tokens or BAT, which has traded for as little as 24 cents over the past 12 months, according to CoinMarketCap. You can exchange the BAT you have received for viewing ads into USD, EUR, GBP, CHF and many more currencies.
The company offers a service through the cryptocurrency exchange Uphold to allow users to change, sell and buy BAT or donate it to publishers, and for publishers to exchange the BAT they receive for dollars. Advertisers like HomeDepot or recent campaigns included brands such as Verizon, Newegg, Chipotle, and PayPal/Honey, in addition to earlier campaigns by Amazon, Harry’s Razors, Intel, CBS, KIND snacks, Logitech, Lenovo, Grubhub, Belkin, Quickbooks, Evernote and some of cryptocurrency related companies, will be able to buy ads either with BAT or with traditional currencies.
Eich says Brave opted to create its own tokens using the Ethereum cryptocurrency platform in part to avoid regulatory requirements, such as verifying users' identifies, that partners like Uphold are better equipped to handle.
Estimated revenue? (depending on the country you live in the revenue can be higher or lower)
I made around 3oo$ so far this year using 3 devices, just for viewing some ads.
5 months so far july is not included if you calculate it down for 1 device, 100$/5months = 20$ a month just for viewing ads, you would need to buy risky stocks worth of 2000$ to get the same amount per month.
can only recommend everyone to try it, not every country has the same number of advertisers so you probably get the most out of it when you live in the USA.
If you are interested here is a quick guide how to set it up to get the max amount out of Brave:
Quickstartguide:
1 Download brave here
2 Activate the reward system (gif link below)Gif link
3 go into the settings an deactivate auto contribution and activate 5 ads per hour (image link below)image link
4 Create an Account on Uphold and connect it with your BraveBrowser.
Now you are good to go and can make some money on something you do anyway.
I hope this helps some folks in the community to make some extra bucks.
edit1:you can find more infos and support here:brave_browser & BATProject or www.brave.com
edit2:the earnings are depenging on the number of devices you are using and were you are living. Best paying countries: United States (69) United Kingdom (39) Canada (36) Australia (35) New Zealand (26) Germany (21) Ireland (21) France (18)( the number next to the country are the companies that are running ads on brave for this particular country, the more companies the more revenue )
you can find a full list with all countries and campaigns here: https://brave.com/transparency/
edit3:You don't need to browse to a certain website to receive ads, just browse as you are used to, play browser games, watch videos on youtube or do whatever you want.Sometimes Ads appear on the startpage looks like that https://i.imgur.com/5tohhRc.jpg and after some time on the right lower corner a clickable pop-up appears looks like that->https://i.imgur.com/CTGdVsu.png
edit4:If you want to import your bookmarks and settings from your old browser:on the right top corner of the browser is a button ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg click it > than on settings > and than you got the option to import bookmarks and settings from your old browser.
If you want to sync brave between devices and for backups:type brave://flags/ into the adressbar and than brave sync into the search bar and acticate itif its enabled it should look like this https://imgur.com/a/tCMDgDjthan just click on sync ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg
here is a guide ->https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360021218111-How-do-I-set-up-Sync
edit5: Don't keep your BAT from free token grants to long in your browser, always send your bat to an external wallet or exchange like uphold, only tokens from free token grants have an expire date if they dont get used they go back to the bat pool. you can find more infos about this here -> https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360018305731-Why-does-my-BAT-have-an-expiration-date-
submitted by OnlyReveal6 to passiveincome [link] [comments]

Transcript of discussion between an ASIC designer and several proof-of-work designers from #monero-pow channel on Freenode this morning

[08:07:01] lukminer contains precompiled cn/r math sequences for some blocks: https://lukminer.org/2019/03/09/oh-kay-v4r-here-we-come/
[08:07:11] try that with RandomX :P
[08:09:00] tevador: are you ready for some RandomX feedback? it looks like the CNv4 is slowly stabilizing, hashrate comes down...
[08:09:07] how does it even make sense to precompile it?
[08:09:14] mine 1% faster for 2 minutes?
[08:09:35] naturally we think the entire asic-resistance strategy is doomed to fail :) but that's a high-level thing, who knows. people may think it's great.
[08:09:49] about RandomX: looks like the cache size was chosen to make it GPU-hard
[08:09:56] looking forward to more docs
[08:11:38] after initial skimming, I would think it's possible to make a 10x asic for RandomX. But at least for us, we will only make an ASIC if there is not a total ASIC hostility there in the first place. That's better for the secret miners then.
[08:13:12] What I propose is this: we are working on an Ethash ASIC right now, and once we have that working, we would invite tevador or whoever wants to come to HK/Shenzhen and we walk you guys through how we would make a RandomX ASIC. You can then process this input in any way you like. Something like that.
[08:13:49] unless asics (or other accelerators) re-emerge on XMR faster than expected, it looks like there is a little bit of time before RandomX rollout
[08:14:22] 10x in what measure? $/hash or watt/hash?
[08:14:46] watt/hash
[08:15:19] so you can make 10 times more efficient double precisio FPU?
[08:16:02] like I said let's try to be productive. You are having me here, let's work together!
[08:16:15] continue with RandomX, publish more docs. that's always helpful.
[08:16:37] I'm trying to understand how it's possible at all. Why AMD/Intel are so inefficient at running FP calculations?
[08:18:05] midipoet ([email protected]/web/irccloud.com/x-vszshqqxwybvtsjm) has joined #monero-pow
[08:18:17] hardware development works the other way round. We start with 1) math then 2) optimization priority 3) hw/sw boundary 4) IP selection 5) physical implementation
[08:22:32] This still doesn't explain at which point you get 10x
[08:23:07] Weren't you the ones claiming "We can accelerate ProgPoW by a factor of 3x to 8x." ? I find it hard to believe too.
[08:30:20] sure
[08:30:26] so my idea: first we finish our current chip
[08:30:35] from simulation to silicon :)
[08:30:40] we love this stuff... we do it anyway
[08:30:59] now we have a communication channel, and we don't call each other names immediately anymore: big progress!
[08:31:06] you know, we russians have a saying "it was smooth on paper, but they forgot about ravines"
[08:31:12] So I need a bit more details
[08:31:16] ha ha. good!
[08:31:31] that's why I want to avoid to just make claims
[08:31:34] let's work
[08:31:40] RandomX comes in Sep/Oct, right?
[08:31:45] Maybe
[08:32:20] We need to audit it first
[08:32:31] ok
[08:32:59] we don't make chips to prove sw devs that their assumptions about hardware are wrong. especially not if these guys then promptly hardfork and move to the next wrong assumption :)
[08:33:10] from the outside, this only means that hw & sw are devaluing each other
[08:33:24] neither of us should do this
[08:33:47] we are making chips that can hopefully accelerate more crypto ops in the future
[08:33:52] signing, verifying, proving, etc.
[08:34:02] PoW is just a feature like others
[08:34:18] sech1: is it easy for you to come to Hong Kong? (visa-wise)
[08:34:20] or difficult?
[08:34:33] or are you there sometimes?
[08:34:41] It's kind of far away
[08:35:13] we are looking forward to more RandomX docs. that's the first step.
[08:35:31] I want to avoid that we have some meme "Linzhi says they can accelerate XYZ by factor x" .... "ha ha ha"
[08:35:37] right? we don't want that :)
[08:35:39] doc is almost finished
[08:35:40] What docs do you need? It's described pretty good
[08:35:41] so I better say nothing now
[08:35:50] we focus on our Ethash chip
[08:36:05] then based on that, we are happy to walk interested people through the design and what else it can do
[08:36:22] that's a better approach from my view than making claims that are laughed away (rightfully so, because no silicon...)
[08:36:37] ethash ASIC is basically a glorified memory controller
[08:36:39] sech1: tevador said something more is coming (he just did it again)
[08:37:03] yes, some parts of RandomX are not described well
[08:37:10] like dataset access logic
[08:37:37] RandomX looks like progpow for CPU
[08:37:54] yes
[08:38:03] it is designed to reflect CPU
[08:38:34] so any ASIC for it = CPU in essence
[08:39:04] of course there are still some things in regular CPU that can be thrown away for RandomX
[08:40:20] uncore parts are not used, but those will use very little power
[08:40:37] except for memory controller
[08:41:09] I'm just surprised sometimes, ok? let me ask: have you designed or taped out an asic before? isn't it risky to make assumptions about things that are largely unknown?
[08:41:23] I would worry
[08:41:31] that I get something wrong...
[08:41:44] but I also worry like crazy that CNv4 will blow up, where you guys seem to be relaxed
[08:42:06] I didn't want to bring up anything RandomX because CNv4 is such a nailbiter... :)
[08:42:15] how do you guys know you don't have asics in a week or two?
[08:42:38] we don't have experience with ASIC design, but RandomX is simply designed to exactly fit CPU capabilities, which is the best you can do anyways
[08:43:09] similar as ProgPoW did with GPUs
[08:43:14] some people say they want to do asic-resistance only until the vast majority of coins has been issued
[08:43:21] that's at least reasonable
[08:43:43] yeah but progpow totally will not work as advertised :)
[08:44:08] yeah, I've seen that comment about progpow a few times already
[08:44:11] which is no surprise if you know it's just a random sales story to sell a few more GPUs
[08:44:13] RandomX is not permanent, we are expecting to switch to ASIC friendly in a few years if possible
[08:44:18] yes
[08:44:21] that makes sense
[08:44:40] linzhi-sonia: how so? will it break or will it be asic-able with decent performance gains?
[08:44:41] are you happy with CNv4 so far?
[08:45:10] ah, long story. progpow is a masterpiece of deception, let's not get into it here.
[08:45:21] if you know chip marketing it makes more sense
[08:45:24] linzhi-sonia: So far? lol! a bit early to tell, don't you think?
[08:45:35] the diff is coming down
[08:45:41] first few hours looked scary
[08:45:43] I remain skeptical: I only see ASICs being reasonable if they are already as ubiquitous as smartphones
[08:45:46] yes, so far so good
[08:46:01] we kbew the diff would not come down ubtil affter block 75
[08:46:10] yes
[08:46:22] but first few hours it looks like only 5% hashrate left
[08:46:27] looked
[08:46:29] now it's better
[08:46:51] the next worry is: when will "unexplainable" hashrate come back?
[08:47:00] you hope 2-3 months? more?
[08:47:05] so give it another couple of days. will probably overshoot to the downside, and then rise a bit as miners get updated and return
[08:47:22] 3 months minimum turnaround, yes
[08:47:28] nah
[08:47:36] don't underestimate asicmakers :)
[08:47:54] you guys don't get #1 priority on chip fabs
[08:47:56] 3 months = 90 days. do you know what is happening in those 90 days exactly? I'm pretty sure you don't. same thing as before.
[08:48:13] we don't do any secret chips btw
[08:48:21] 3 months assumes they had a complete design ready to go, and added the last minute change in 1 day
[08:48:24] do you know who is behind the hashrate that is now bricked?
[08:48:27] innosilicon?
[08:48:34] hyc: no no, and no. :)
[08:48:44] hyc: have you designed or taped out a chip before?
[08:48:51] yes, many years ago
[08:49:10] then you should know that 90 days is not a fixed number
[08:49:35] sure, but like I said, other makers have greater demand
[08:49:35] especially not if you can prepare, if you just have to modify something, or you have more programmability in the chip than some people assume
[08:50:07] we are chipmakers, we would never dare to do what you guys are doing with CNv4 :) but maybe that just means you are cooler!
[08:50:07] and yes, programmability makes some aspect of turnaround easier
[08:50:10] all fine
[08:50:10] I hope it works!
[08:50:28] do you know who is behind the hashrate that is now bricked?
[08:50:29] inno?
[08:50:41] we suspect so, but have no evidence
[08:50:44] maybe we can try to find them, but we cannot spend too much time on this
[08:50:53] it's probably not so much of a secret
[08:51:01] why should it be, right?
[08:51:10] devs want this cat-and-mouse game? devs get it...
[08:51:35] there was one leak saying it's innosilicon
[08:51:36] so you think 3 months, ok
[08:51:43] inno is cool
[08:51:46] good team
[08:51:49] IP design house
[08:51:54] in Wuhan
[08:52:06] they send their people to conferences with fake biz cards :)
[08:52:19] pretending to be other companies?
[08:52:26] sure
[08:52:28] ha ha
[08:52:39] so when we see them, we look at whatever card they carry and laugh :)
[08:52:52] they are perfectly suited for secret mining games
[08:52:59] they made at most $6 million in 2 months of mining, so I wonder if it was worth it
[08:53:10] yeah. no way to know
[08:53:15] but it's good that you calculate!
[08:53:24] this is all about cost/benefit
[08:53:25] then you also understand - imagine the value of XMR goes up 5x, 10x
[08:53:34] that whole "asic resistance" thing will come down like a house of cards
[08:53:41] I would imagine they sell immediately
[08:53:53] the investor may fully understand the risk
[08:53:57] the buyer
[08:54:13] it's not healthy, but that's another discussion
[08:54:23] so mid-June
[08:54:27] let's see
[08:54:49] I would be susprised if CNv4 ASICs show up at all
[08:54:56] surprised*
[08:54:56] why?
[08:55:05] is only an economic question
[08:55:12] yeah should be interesting. FPGAs will be near their limits as well
[08:55:16] unless XMR goes up a lot
[08:55:19] no, not *only*. it's also a technology question
[08:55:44] you believe CNv4 is "asic resistant"? which feature?
[08:55:53] it's not
[08:55:59] cnv4 = Rabdomx ?
[08:56:03] no
[08:56:07] cnv4=cryptinight/r
[08:56:11] ah
[08:56:18] CNv4 is the one we have now, I think
[08:56:21] since yesterday
[08:56:30] it's plenty enough resistant for current XMR price
[08:56:45] that may be, yes!
[08:56:55] I look at daily payouts. XMR = ca. 100k USD / day
[08:57:03] it can hold until October, but it's not asic resistant
[08:57:23] well, last 24h only 22,442 USD :)
[08:57:32] I think 80 h/s per watt ASICs are possible for CNv4
[08:57:38] linzhi-sonia where do you produce your chips? TSMC?
[08:57:44] I'm cruious how you would expect to build a randomX ASIC that outperforms ARM cores for efficiency, or Intel cores for raw speed
[08:57:48] curious
[08:58:01] yes, tsmc
[08:58:21] Our team did the world's first bitcoin asic, Avalon
[08:58:25] and upcoming 2nd gen Ryzens (64-core EPYC) will be a blast at RandomX
[08:58:28] designed and manufactured
[08:58:53] still being marketed?
[08:59:03] linzhi-sonia: do you understand what xmr wants to achieve, community-wise?
[08:59:14] Avalon? as part of Canaan Creative, yes I think so.
[08:59:25] there's not much interesting oing on in SHA256
[08:59:29] Inge-: I would think so, but please speak
[08:59:32] hyc: yes
[09:00:28] linzhi-sonia: i am curious to hear your thoughts. I am fairly new to this space myself...
[09:00:51] oh
[09:00:56] we are grandpas, and grandmas
[09:01:36] yet I have no problem understanding why ASICS are currently reviled.
[09:01:48] xmr's main differentiators to, let's say btc, are anonymity and fungibility
[09:01:58] I find the client terribly slow btw
[09:02:21] and I think the asic-forking since last may is wrong, doesn't create value and doesn't help with the project objectives
[09:02:25] which "the client" ?
[09:02:52] Monero GUI client maybe
[09:03:12] MacOS, yes
[09:03:28] What exactly is slow?
[09:03:30] linzhi-sonia: I run my own node, and use the CLI and Monerujo. Have not had issues.
[09:03:49] staying in sync
[09:03:49] linzhi-sonia: decentralization is also a key principle
[09:03:56] one that Bitcoin has failed to maintain
[09:04:39] hmm
[09:05:00] looks fairly decentralized to me. decentralization is the result of 3 goals imo: resilient, trustless, permissionless
[09:05:28] don't ask a hardware maker about physical decentralization. that's too ideological. we focus on logical decentralization.
[09:06:11] physical decentralization is important. with bulk of bitnoin mining centered on Chinese hydroelectric dams
[09:06:19] have you thought about including block data in the PoW?
[09:06:41] yes, of course.
[09:07:39] is that already in an algo?
[09:08:10] hyc: about "centered on chinese hydro" - what is your source? the best paper I know is this: https://coinshares.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Mining-Whitepaper-Final.pdf
[09:09:01] linzhi-sonia: do you mine on your ASICs before you sell them?
[09:09:13] besides testing of course
[09:09:45] that paper puts Chinese btc miners at 60% max
[09:10:05] tevador: I think everybody learned that that is not healthy long-term!
[09:10:16] because it gives the chipmaker a cost advantage over its own customers
[09:10:33] and cost advantage leads to centralization (physical and logical)
[09:10:51] you guys should know who finances progpow and why :)
[09:11:05] but let's not get into this, ha ha. want to keep the channel civilized. right OhGodAGirl ? :)
[09:11:34] tevador: so the answer is no! 100% and definitely no
[09:11:54] that "self-mining" disease was one of the problems we have now with asics, and their bad reputation (rightfully so)
[09:13:08] I plan to write a nice short 2-page paper or so on our chip design process. maybe it's interesting to some people here.
[09:13:15] basically the 5 steps I mentioned before, from math to physical
[09:13:32] linzhi-sonia: the paper you linked puts 48% of bitcoin mining in Sichuan. the total in China is much more than 60%
[09:13:38] need to run it by a few people to fix bugs, will post it here when published
[09:14:06] hyc: ok! I am just sharing the "best" document I know today. it definitely may be wrong and there may be a better one now.
[09:14:18] hyc: if you see some reports, please share
[09:14:51] hey I am really curious about this: where is a PoW algo that puts block data into the PoW?
[09:15:02] the previous paper I read is from here http://hackingdistributed.com/2018/01/15/decentralization-bitcoin-ethereum/
[09:15:38] hyc: you said that already exists? (block data in PoW)
[09:15:45] it would make verification harder
[09:15:49] linzhi-sonia: https://the-eye.eu/public/Books/campdivision.com/PDF/Computers%20General/Privacy/bitcoin/meh/hashimoto.pdf
[09:15:51] but for chips it would be interesting
[09:15:52] we discussed the possibility about a year ago https://www.reddit.com/Monero/comments/8bshrx/what_we_need_to_know_about_proof_of_work_pow/
[09:16:05] oh good links! thanks! need to read...
[09:16:06] I think that paper by dryja was original
[09:17:53] since we have a nice flow - second question I'm very curious about: has anyone thought about in-protocol rewards for other functions?
[09:18:55] we've discussed micropayments for wallets to use remote nodes
[09:18:55] you know there is a lot of work in other coins about STARK provers, zero-knowledge, etc. many of those things very compute intense, or need to be outsourced to a service (zether). For chipmakers, in-protocol rewards create an economic incentive to accelerate those things.
[09:19:50] whenever there is an in-protocol reward, you may get the power of ASICs doing something you actually want to happen
[09:19:52] it would be nice if there was some economic reward for running a fullnode, but no one has come up with much more than that afaik
[09:19:54] instead of fighting them off
[09:20:29] you need to use asics, not fight them. that's an obvious thing to say for an asicmaker...
[09:20:41] in-protocol rewards can be very powerful
[09:20:50] like I said before - unless the ASICs are so useful they're embedded in every smartphone, I dont see them being a positive for decentralization
[09:21:17] if they're a separate product, the average consumer is not going to buy them
[09:21:20] now I was talking about speedup of verifying, signing, proving, etc.
[09:21:23] they won't even know what they are
[09:22:07] if anybody wants to talk about or design in-protocol rewards, please come talk to us
[09:22:08] the average consumer also doesn't use general purpose hardware to secure blockchains either
[09:22:14] not just for PoW, in fact *NOT* for PoW
[09:22:32] it requires sw/hw co-design
[09:23:10] we are in long-term discussions/collaboration over this with Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash. just talk right now.
[09:23:16] this was recently published though suggesting more uptake though I guess https://btcmanager.com/college-students-are-the-second-biggest-miners-of-cryptocurrency/
[09:23:29] I find it pretty hard to believe their numbers
[09:24:03] well
[09:24:09] sorry, original article: https://www.pcmag.com/news/366952/college-kids-are-using-campus-electricity-to-mine-crypto
[09:24:11] just talk, no? rumors
[09:24:18] college students are already more educated than the average consumer
[09:24:29] we are not seeing many such customers anymore
[09:24:30] it's data from cisco monitoring network traffic
[09:24:33] and they're always looking for free money
[09:24:48] of course anyone with "free" electricity is inclined to do it
[09:24:57] but look at the rates, cannot make much money
[09:26:06] Ethereum is a bloated collection of bugs wrapped in a UI. I suppose they need all the help they can get
[09:26:29] Bitcoin Cash ... just another get rich quick scheme
[09:26:38] hmm :)
[09:26:51] I'll give it back to you, ok? ha ha. arrogance comes before the fall...
[09:27:17] maye we should have a little fun with CNv4 mining :)
[09:27:25] ;)
[09:27:38] come on. anyone who has watched their track record... $75M lost in ETH at DAO hack
[09:27:50] every smart contract that comes along is just waiting for another hack
[09:27:58] I just wanted to throw out the "in-protocol reward" thing, maybe someone sees the idea and wants to cowork. maybe not. maybe it's a stupid idea.
[09:29:18] linzhi-sonia: any thoughts on CN-GPU?
[09:29:55] CN-GPU has one positive aspect - it wastes chip area to implement all 18 hash algorithms
[09:30:19] you will always hear roughly the same feedback from me:
[09:30:52] "This algorithm very different, it heavy use floating point operations to hurt FPGAs and general purpose CPUs"
[09:30:56] the problem is, if it's profitable for people to buy ASIC miners and mine, it's always more profitable for the manufacturer to not sell and mine themselves
[09:31:02] "hurt"
[09:31:07] what is the point of this?
[09:31:15] it totally doesn't work
[09:31:24] you are hurting noone, just demonstrating lack of ability to think
[09:31:41] what is better: algo designed for chip, or chip designed for algo?
[09:31:43] fireice does it on daily basis, CN-GPU is a joke
[09:31:53] tevador: that's not really true, especially in a market with such large price fluctuations as cryptocurrency
[09:32:12] it's far less risky to sell miners than mine with them and pray that price doesn't crash for next six months
[09:32:14] I think it's great that crypto has a nice group of asicmakers now, hw & sw will cowork well
[09:32:36] jwinterm yes, that's why they premine them and sell after
[09:32:41] PoW is about being thermodynamically and cryptographically provable
[09:32:45] premining with them is taking on that risk
[09:32:49] not "fork when we think there are asics"
[09:32:51] business is about risk minimization
[09:32:54] that's just fear-driven
[09:33:05] Inge-: that's roughly the feedback
[09:33:24] I'm not saying it hasn't happened, but I think it's not so simple as saying "it always happens"
[09:34:00] jwinterm: it has certainly happened on BTC. and also on XMR.
[09:34:19] ironically, please think about it: these kinds of algos indeed prove the limits of the chips they were designed for. but they don't prove that you cannot implement the same algo differently! cannot!
[09:34:26] Risk minimization is not starting a business at all.
[09:34:34] proof-of-gpu-limit. proof-of-cpu-limit.
[09:34:37] imagine you have a money printing machine, would you sell it?
[09:34:39] proves nothing for an ASIC :)
[09:35:05] linzhi-sonia: thanks. I dont think anyone believes you can't make a more efficient cn-gpu asic than a gpu - but that it would not be orders of magnitude faster...
[09:35:24] ok
[09:35:44] like I say. these algos are, that's really ironic, designed to prove the limitatios of a particular chip in mind of the designer
[09:35:50] exactly the wrong way round :)
[09:36:16] like the cache size in RandomX :)
[09:36:18] beautiful
[09:36:29] someone looked at GPU designs
[09:37:31] linzhi-sonia can you elaborate? Cache size in RandomX was selected to fit CPU cache
[09:37:52] yes
[09:38:03] too large for GPU
[09:38:11] as I said, we are designing the algorithm to exactly fit CPU capabilities, I do not claim an ASIC cannot be more efficient
[09:38:16] ok!
[09:38:29] when will you do the audit?
[09:38:35] will the results be published in a document or so?
[09:38:37] I claim that single-chip ASIC is not viable, though
[09:39:06] you guys are brave, noone disputes that. 3 anti-asic hardforks now!
[09:39:18] 4th one coming
[09:39:31] 3 forks were done not only for this
[09:39:38] they had scheduled updates in the first place
[09:48:10] Monero is the #1 anti-asic fighter
[09:48:25] Monero is #1 for a lot of reasons ;)
[09:48:40] It's the coin with the most hycs.
[09:48:55] mooooo
[09:59:06] sneaky integer overflow, bug squished
[10:38:00] p0nziph0ne ([email protected]/vpn/privateinternetaccess/p0nziph0ne) has joined #monero-pow
[11:10:53] The convo here is wild
[11:12:29] it's like geo-politics at the intersection of software and hardware manufacturing for thermoeconomic value.
[11:13:05] ..and on a Sunday.
[11:15:43] midipoet: hw and sw should work together and stop silly games to devalue each other. to outsiders this is totally not attractive.
[11:16:07] I appreciate the positive energy here to try to listen, learn, understand.
[11:16:10] that's a start
[11:16:48] <-- p0nziph0ne ([email protected]/vpn/privateinternetaccess/p0nziph0ne) has quit (Quit: Leaving)
[11:16:54] we won't do silly mining against xmr "community" wishes, but not because we couldn'd do it, but because it's the wrong direction in the long run, for both sides
[11:18:57] linzhi-sonia: I agree to some extent. Though, in reality, there will always be divergence between social worlds. Not every body has the same vision of the future. Reaching societal consensus on reality tomorrow is not always easy
[11:20:25] absolutely. especially at a time when there is so much profit to be made from divisiveness.
[11:20:37] someone will want to make that profit, for sure
[11:24:32] Yes. Money distorts.
[11:24:47] Or wealth...one of the two
[11:26:35] Too much physical money will distort rays of light passing close to it indeed.
submitted by jwinterm to Monero [link] [comments]

⚡ Lightning Network Megathread ⚡

Last updated 2018-01-29
This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information.
There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!

⚡What is the Lightning Network? ⚡

Explanations:

Image Explanations:

Specifications / White Papers

Videos

Lightning Network Experts on Reddit

  • starkbot - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • cfromknecht - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • RustyReddit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • cdecker - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • Dryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • josephpoon - (Joseph Poon)
  • fdrn - (Fabrice Drouin - ACINQ )
  • pmpadiou - (Pierre-Marie Padiou - ACINQ)

Lightning Network Experts on Twitter

  • @starkness - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • @roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • @stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • @bitconner - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • @johanth - (Johan Halseth - Lightning Labs)
  • @bvu - (Bryan Vu - Lightning Labs)
  • @rusty_twit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • @snyke - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • @JackMallers - (Jack Mallers - Zap)
  • @tdryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • @jcp - (Joseph Poon)
  • @alexbosworth - (Alex Bosworth - yalls.org)

Medium Posts

Learning Resources

Books

Desktop Interfaces

Web Interfaces

Tutorials and resources

Lightning on Testnet

Lightning Wallets

Place a testnet transaction

Altcoin Trading using Lightning

  • ZigZag - Disclaimer You must trust ZigZag to send to Target Address

Lightning on Mainnet

Warning - Testing should be done on Testnet

Atomic Swaps

Developer Documentation and Resources

Lightning implementations

  • LND - Lightning Network Daemon (Golang)
  • eclair - A Scala implementation of the Lightning Network (Scala)
  • c-lightning - A Lightning Network implementation in C
  • lit - Lightning Network node software (Golang)
  • lightning-onion - Onion Routed Micropayments for the Lightning Network (Golang)
  • lightning-integration - Lightning Integration Testing Framework
  • ptarmigan - C++ BOLT-Compliant Lightning Network Implementation [Incomplete]

Libraries

Lightning Network Visualizers/Explorers

Testnet

Mainnet

Payment Processors

  • BTCPay - Next stable version will include Lightning Network

Community

Slack

IRC

Slack Channel

Discord Channel

Miscellaneous

⚡ Lightning FAQs ⚡

If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily,
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
What are Channel Factories and how do they work?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How does the Lightning network work in simple terms?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How are paths found in Lightning Network?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Stack Exchange Answer
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
No -- Source
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
Stack Exchange Answer
Can the Lightning Network work on any other cryptocurrency? How?
Stack Exchange Answer
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
Stack Exchange Answer

Unanswered Questions

How do on-chain fees work when opening and closing channels? Who pays the fee?
How does the Lightning Network work for mobile users?
What are the best practices for securing a lightning node?
What is a lightning "hub"?
How does lightning handle cross chain (Atomic) swaps?

Special Thanks and Notes

  • Many links found from awesome-lightning-network github
  • Everyone who submitted a question or concern!
  • I'm continuing to format for an easier Mobile experience!
submitted by codedaway to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Understanding Crypto Mining | And perhaps a way to mitigate its impact on the PC gaming ecosystem

EDIT: Per the moderation staff, I'm adding in to the header what I'm using to make it easier for prospective miners.
  1. Go to https://www.nicehash.com/
  2. Create a login
  3. Download their software and run it (this used to be "????")
  4. Profit
Once you reach 0.002 BTC (about 7-10 days on my GTX 1060 + i7-7700k), you can transfer your earnings to Coinbase for free, and cash out. CB does have fees for conversion to Fiat (cash) and your percentage goes down with higher amounts. So don't cash out just because you can. Cash out when you have enough to buy something.
Also a note on taxes. I'm going to keep this simple.
Hi folks. I just want to thank those of you in advance who trudge through this post. It's going to be long. I will try to have a TLDR at the end, so just scroll down for the bolded text if you want Cliff's Notes.
Disclaimer: I'm a miner, sort of. I casually mine when I sleep/work, using my existing PC. It doesn't make much. I don't buy hardware for mining. But, I still wanted to post this disclaimer in the interest of fairness.
As we all know, cryptocurrency mining has had a devastating impact on the PC gaming ecosystem. The demand for GPUs for mining has lead to scarce availability and sky high prices for relevant hardware. But even hardware that is less desirable for mining relative to their peers (GTX 1050ti, 1080) has been impacted. Why? Because when gamers can't get the 1060 or 1070 that they desire, they gravitate en masse towards something that their finances will allow them to settle for.
But for all that we know about mining, there's still a LOT of myth and misinformation out there. And I blame this on the bigger miners themselves. They have a few tactics they're using to discourage competition. Now, why would they do this? Simply put, the more coins are mined, the harder the algorithms get. That means the same hardware mines a lower rate of cryptocurrency over time. If the mining rates were to get too low before new hardware (Volta/Navi) could be released, it would cause a massive depression in the cryptocurrency market. Most hardware would become unprofitable, and used GPUs would flood the market. Miners want to retain profitability on current hardware until the next generation hardware is out.
So, what tactics are they engaging in? Silence and manipulation. On the former, the bigger miners don't usually participate and contribute to the community (there are exceptions, and they are greatly appreciated). They're sponges, taking whatever the community provides without returning much to the community. On the latter, they post here, in this very sub occasionally. And they continue to push certain types of myth/misinformation to discourage other users from mining.
And why, of all people, would you discourage gamers from mining? It's because of the competition point mentioned above. If a massive number of gamers entered the cryptocurrency mining market, it could trigger a mining apocalypse. There's an estimated 3-4 million current-gen GPUs being used in 24/7 mining operations by dedicated miners. Now, how many current-gen GPUs are used by gamers? I'd bet at least an equal amount. But what about Maxwell and Kepler? Or all those GCN-based GPUs up through Fiji? Bottom line is that when you factor in all available profitable GPUs, gamers drastically outnumber dedicated miners (yes, Kepler and GCN 1.0 are still profitable, barely). And if a large number of those users started casually mining as I am, the following would occur:
  • difficulty would increase, lower output (profitability) for everyone involved
  • Coin creation would initially accelerate, and with no massive change to the market cap, that means per-coin value drops
  • when you factor in slower coin generation for individual miners, coupled with lower coin value, you get...
  • ROI length increase on GPUs, depressing their values, which would lead to lower prices and higher availability
Oh dear, someone just spilled the beans...
So naturally, misinformation needs to be spread. If dedicated miners can keep the uninformed, well, uninformed, they're less likely to join in. And I've seen variations of the following misinformation spread. Here's the common tropes, and my rebuttal.
Mining on your GPU will cause it to die prematurely.
I really wish we had a Blackblaze-equivalent for GPUs used in data centers. NOTHING punishes a GPU like full-time use in a data center. Not mining, not gaming, and not prosumer usage. And these companies pay thousands per GPU. Clearly, they're getting solid ROI for their use.
But let's talk about mining specifically. For my GTX 1060, I limit power to 80% (96W). Fan speed is at a constant 40% (that's in the same ballpark as your blower-style GPU in desktop usage). Temperature is a constant 75°C. That's gentle. Gaming hurts it more (start/stop on the fan, varying temps, quick rise at the start and fall at the end, varying loads, etc.).
And if GPUs did prematurely die from mining? One miner insisted that I'd never see an ROI on my 1060 (which cost me $240) because it would die before I could earn that amount. Yea, GPUs routinely die before hitting their ROI. That's why miners are buying $200 GPUs today for $500, or $400 GPUs today for $900. Because they don't generate enough to cover their MSRP, let alone their current gouged prices. /s
Common sense would dictate that miners are profitable, or they wouldn't mine. Therefore, GPUs are not dying prematurely. So, don't fall for this one. And yes, I've seen those photos of the 20-card Sapphire RMA. Mining data centers have THOUSANDS of cards. Just do an image search for a GPU mining farm. This is well within typical acceptable defect rates.
Power costs are too high for mining to be profitable.
Warning! Danger Will Robinson! Math ahead!
Where I live, electricity ranges from 9.5 cents per kilowatt hour (kw/hr), to 10.1 cents per kw/hr. Let's round to 10 cents. Power measured at the wall from my surge protector, while mining, shows just under 200W. (That's includes my tower, monitor, speakers, a dedicated NAS, a router, and PSU inefficiency). That also includes mining on both CPU and GPU.
At 200W per hour, that's 5 hours to hit 1kw/hr. That's 5kw/hr per 25 hours, so let's call it 5kw/hr per day. That is $0.50 per day total from that outlet (and most of this stuff would be running anyway). That's not even "over my existing costs," that's just out the door.
Bottom line is that electricity is cheap in many areas. The USA national average is currently ~12 cents per kw/hr (RIP Hawaii, at 33 cents). For most of the developed world, power costs are not prohibitive. Don't fall for this. If unsure, check your rates on your bill, and ask someone who can do math if you can't.
Casually mining isn't profitable
There's a big difference between "profit" and "getting rich." I have no expectations of the latter happening from what I'm doing. But "profit" is very much real. It's not power costs that derail profitability. It's all of the hidden fees. Many mining programs take a cut of your output. And then a cut to transfer to a wallet. And then there's a fee to transfer to an exchange. Oh, did you want to then convert to cash? We can...for a fee!
The trick is in finding outlets that allow you to minimize fees. I give up 2% of my output, transfer to my wallet for free, can transfer to an exchange for free, and don't plan to cash out every time I meet the minimum threshold (higher fees!). I instead plan to cash out at extended set intervals to minimize those fees.
NOTE: I am deliberately not listing the provider(s) that I use, because I don't want to be accused of being associated with them and/or driving business to them. I want this post to be about the big picture. But I will answer questions in the comments, provided the moderation staff here has no objections.
Bottom line is that with a mid-range GPU like mine, and without the benefit of CPU mining (it's just not worth it without a modern Core i7, or Ryzen 5/7), my GPU alone could make me ~$60-$75/mo in profit at current rates. Think of how many months/years you go between upgrades. Now, do the math. Needless to say, I'm now regretting not going bigger up front :)
It's too complicated for a casual miner, so don't bother
The old "go big or go home" saying, and it sort of piggy backs off the last one. And there is some truth in this. If you're going to be a big-time miner, you need mining programs (often dedicated to each algorithm and/or currency), multiple wallets, access to multiple exchanges, etc. It's daunting.
But for the casual, you don't need that. There are multiple providers who offer you a one-stop-shop. I have one login right now. That login gives me my mining software, which switches between multiple algorithms/coins, gives me a wallet, and lets me transfer to an outside wallet/exchange. My second login will be the exchange (something that lets me convert my currency to local cash) when my balance justifies it. Given the recent Robin Hood announcement, I'm biding my time to see what happens. This space is getting competitive (lower fees).
Bottom line, it's easier now than it ever was before. As I told someone else, "Once I finally started, I wanted to kick my own ass for waiting so long."
New GPUs are expensive, but if you just wait, there will be a buttload of cheap, used GPUs for you!
Miners learned from the last crash. There were two types of miners in that crash: those who sold their GPUs at a loss, and those who kept mining and made out like bandits on the upswing. Turns out, cryptocurrency really does mimic the stock market (for now).
We're going to look at Bitcoin (BTC) to explain this. No, miners don't mine BTC. But, BTC is commonly what most coins are exchanged for (it makes up roughly one third of the entire cryptocurrency market). And it's the easiest currency to convert to cash. So, when BTC rises or falls in price, the rest of the market goes with it. That includes all of the coins that GPU miners are actually mining.
In January 2017, when the current mining push started, BTC was worth roughly $900 per coin. It's now worth roughly (as of this post) $12,000 per coin, down from a December high of over $20,000 per coin. So yea, the market "crashed." It's also more than 12x the value it was a year ago, when miners dove in. You think they're going to bail at 12x the value? Son, I've got news for you. This market needs to truly crash and burn for them to bail (and that's where you come in!).
So, there's not going to be a flood of used GPUs from a sudden market crash. Again, they've learned from that mistake. Used GPUs will enter the market when they are no longer profitable for mining, and not before. Dedicated miners have lots of room for expansion. When Volta comes out, they're not selling their Pascal GPUs. They're building new Volta mining rigs alongside the Pascal ones, making money off each of them.
Conclusion/TLDR:
  • Mining is subject to diminishing returns. It gets harder over time on the same hardware.
  • PC gamers joining the market en masse could trigger an apocalypse in terms of difficulty
  • Due to this, it benefits pro miners to spread misinformation to discourage gamers from entering the mining game
  • Casually mining on your existing system is safe, easy, could help you pay for your next upgrade(s), and could also hurt the mining market in general (better availability/pricing on GPUs)
  • No, there's no flood of used Pascal/Polaris/Vega GPUs around the corner, as those are HIGHLY profitable even in a depressed market
Second Conclusion - Why do I (jaykresge) personally care?
Simply put, I'm disgusted by this. I was excited about flipping a few friends from consoles to PC gaming. I'm now seeing a reverse trend. One friend is gaming on an RX 560 waiting for prices to hit sanity. He's running out of patience. Others have bailed.
I view our dormant GPUs as the best weapon against cryptocurrency mining. Destroy it from the inside. It's win-win for most of us. Either we earn enough for more upgrades, or we depress pricing. Something's got to give.
In other words, y'all f*ckers better start mining, because I want Volta to be reasonably priced when it launches so I can get an EVGA x80 Hybrid to go with a G-Sync monitor. And if this doesn't happen, I'm going to be cranky!
Seriously though, thanks for reading. Bear with me as I go over this a few more times for typing/grammar. And I look forward to your comments.
submitted by jaykresge to hardware [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 3th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 1th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 5th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by Crypto_Jasper to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - December 29, 2017

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.

Guidelines for posting in this thread:

Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:

Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.

Guidelines for posting new threads:

Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)

The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf

The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf

Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)

How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/

My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.

What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.

What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/

My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!

The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).

My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back

We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!

What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/

We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.

Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.

What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.

What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.

What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.

How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping

Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!

How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.

Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.

What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb

What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.

Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.

Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!

Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).

Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link

Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync (December 15th, 2017) Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.

Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
submitted by AutoModerator to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

An extensive guide for cashing out bitcoin and cryptocurrencies into private banks

Hey guys.
Merry Xmas !
I am coming back to you with a follow up post, as I have helped many people cash out this year and I have streamlined the process. After my original post, I received many requests to be more specific and provide more details. I thought that after the amazing rally we have been attending over the last few months, and the volatility of the last few days, it would be interesting to revisit more extensively.
The attitude of banks around crypto is changing slowly, but it is still a tough stance. For the first partial cash out I operated around a year ago for a client, it took me months to find a bank. They wouldn’t want to even consider the case and we had to knock at each and every door. Despite all my contacts it was very difficult back in the days. This has changed now, and banks have started to open their doors, but there is a process, a set of best practices and codes one has to follow.
I often get requests from crypto guys who are very privacy-oriented, and it takes me months to have them understand that I am bound by Swiss law on banking secrecy, and I am their ally in this onboarding process. It’s funny how I have to convince people that banks are legit, while on the other side, banks ask me to show that crypto millionaires are legit. I have a solid background in both banking and in crypto so I manage to make the bridge, but yeah sometimes it is tough to reconcile the two worlds. I am a crypto enthusiast myself and I can say that after years of work in the banking industry I have grown disillusioned towards banks as well, like many of you. Still an account in a Private bank is convenient and powerful. So let’s get started.
There are two different aspects to your onboarding in a Swiss Private bank, compliance-wise.
*The origin of your crypto wealth
*Your background (residence, citizenship and probity)
These two aspects must be documented in-depth.
How to document your crypto wealth. Each new crypto millionaire has a different story. I may detail a few fun stories later in this post, but at the end of the day, most of crypto rich I have met can be categorized within the following profiles: the miner, the early adopter, the trader, the corporate entity, the black market, the libertarian/OTC buyer. The real question is how you prove your wealth is legit.
1. Context around the original amount/investment Generally speaking, your first crypto purchase may not be documented. But the context around this acquisition can be. I have had many cases where the original amount was bought through Mtgox, and no proof of purchase could be provided, nor could be documented any Mtgox claim. That’s perfectly fine. At some point Mtgox amounted 70% of the bitcoin transactions globally, and people who bought there and managed to withdraw and keep hold of their bitcoins do not have any Mtgox claim. This is absolutely fine. However, if you can show me the record of a wire from your bank to Tisbane (Mtgox's parent company) it's a great way to start.
Otherwise, what I am trying to document here is the following: I need context. If you made your first purchase by saving from summer jobs, show me a payroll. Even if it was USD 2k. If you acquired your first bitcoins from mining, show me the bills of your mining equipment from 2012 or if it was through a pool mine, give me your slushpool account ref for instance. If you were given bitcoin against a service you charged, show me an invoice.
2. Tracking your wealth until today and making sense of it. What I have been doing over the last few months was basically educating compliance officers. Thanks God, the blockchain is a global digital ledger! I have been telling my auditors and compliance officers they have the best tool at their disposal to lead a proper investigation. Whether you like it or not, your wealth can be tracked, from address to address. You may have thought all along this was a bad feature, but I am telling you, if you want to cash out, in the context of Private Banking onboarding, tracking your wealth through the block explorer is a boon. We can see the inflows, outflows. We can see the age behind an address. An early adopter who bought 1000 BTC in 2010, and let his bitcoin behind one address and held thus far is legit, whether or not he has a proof of purchase to show. That’s just common sense. My job is to explain that to the banks in a language they understand.
Let’s have a look at a few examples and how to document the few profiles I mentioned earlier.
The trader. I love traders. These are easy cases. I have a ton of respect for them. Being a trader myself in investment banks for a decade earlier in my career has taught me that controlling one’s emotions and having the discipline to impose oneself some proper risk management system is really really hard. Further, being able to avoid the exchange bankruptcy and hacks throughout crypto history is outstanding. It shows real survival instinct, or just plain blissed ignorance. In any cases traders at exchange are easy cases to corroborate since their whole track record is potentially available. Some traders I have met have automated their trading and have shown me more than 500k trades done over the span of 4 years. Obviously in this kind of scenario I don’t show everything to the bank to avoid information overload, and prefer to do some snacking here and there. My strategy is to show the early trades, the most profitable ones, explain the trading strategy and (partially expose) the situation as of now with id pages of the exchanges and current balance. Many traders have become insensitive to the risk of parking their crypto at exchange as they want to be able to trade or to grasp an occasion any minute, so they generally do not secure a substantial portion on the blockchain which tends to make me very nervous.
The early adopter. Provided that he has not mixed his coin, the early adopter or “hodler” is not a difficult case either. Who cares how you bought your first 10k btc if you bought them below 3$ ? Even if you do not have a purchase proof, I would generally manage to find ways. We just have to corroborate the original 30’000 USD investment in this case. I mainly focus on three things here:
*proof of early adoption I have managed to educate some banks on a few evidences specifically related to crypto markets. For instance with me, an old bitcointalk account can serve as a proof of early adoption. Even an old reddit post from a few years ago where you say how much you despise this Ripple premined scam can prove to be a treasure readily available to show you were early.
*story telling Compliance officers like to know when, why and how. They are human being looking for simple answers to simple questions and they don’t want like to be played fool. Telling the truth, even without a proof can do wonders, and even though bluffing might still work because banks don’t fully understand bitcoin yet, it is a risky strategy that is less and less likely to pay off as they are getting more sophisticated by the day.
*micro transaction from an old address you control This is the killer feature. Send a $20 worth transaction from an old address to my company wallet and to one of my partner bank’s wallet and you are all set ! This is gold and considered a very solid piece of evidence. You can also do a microtransaction to your own wallet, but banks generally prefer transfer to their own wallet. Patience with them please. they are still learning.
*signature message Why do a micro transaction when you can sign a message and avoid potentially tainting your coins ?
*ICO millionaire Some clients made their wealth participating in ETH crowdsale or IOTA ICO. They were very easy to deal with obviously and the account opening was very smooth since we could evidence the GENESIS TxHash flow.
The miner Not so easy to proof the wealth is legit in that case. Most early miners never took screenshot of the blocks on bitcoin core, nor did they note down the block number of each block they mined. Until the the Slashdot article from August 2010 anyone could mine on his laptop, let his computer run overnight and wake up to a freshly minted block containing 50 bitcoins back in the days. Not many people were structured enough to store and secure these coins, avoid malwares while syncing the blockchain continuously, let alone document the mined blocks in the process. What was 50 BTC worth really for the early miners ? dust of dollars, games and magic cards… Even miners post 2010 are generally difficult to deal with in terms of compliance onboarding. Many pool mining are long dead. Deepbit is down for instance and the founders are MIA. So my strategy to proof mining activity is as follow:
*Focusing on IT background whenever possible. An IT background does help a lot to bring some substance to the fact you had the technical ability to operate a mining rig.
*Showing mining equipment receipts. If you mined on your own you must have bought the hardware to do so. For instance mining equipment receipts from butterfly lab from 2012-2013 could help document your case. Similarly, high electricity bill from your household on a consistent basis back in the day could help. I have already unlocked a tricky case in the past with such documents when the bank was doubtful.
*Wallet.dat files with block mining transactions from 2011 thereafter This obviously is a fantastic piece of evidence for both you and me if you have an old wallet and if you control an address that received original mined blocks, (even if the wallet is now empty). I will make sure compliance officers understand what it means, and as for the early adopter, you can prove your control over these wallet through a microtransaction. With these kind of addresses, I can show on the block explorer the mined block rewards hitting at regular time interval, and I can even spot when difficulty level increased or when halvening process happened.
*Poolmining account. Here again I have educated my partner bank to understand that a slush account opened in 2013 or an OnionTip presence was enough to corroborate mining activity. The block explorer then helps me to do the bridge with your current wallet.
*Describing your set up and putting it in context In the history of mining we had CPU, GPU, FPG and ASICs mining. I will describe your technical set up and explain why and how your set up was competitive at that time.
The corporate entity Remember 2012 when we were all convinced bitcoin would take over the world, and soon everyone would pay his coffee in bitcoin? How naïve we were to think transaction fees would remain low forever. I don’t blame bitcoin cash supporters; I once shared this dream as well. Remember when we thought global adoption was right around the corner and some brick and mortar would soon accept bitcoin transaction as a common mean of payment? Well, some shop actually did accept payment and held. I had a few cases as such of shops holders, who made it to the multi million mark holding and had invoices or receipts to proof the transactions. If you are organized enough to keep a record for these trades and are willing to cooperate for the documentation, you are making your life easy. The digital advertising business is also a big market for the bitcoin industry, and affiliates partner compensated in btc are common. It is good to show an invoice, it is better to show a contract. If you do not have a contract (which is common since all advertising deals are about ticking a check box on the website to accept terms and conditions), there are ways around that. If you are in that case, pm me.
The black market Sorry guys, I can’t do much for you officially. Not that I am judging you. I am a libertarian myself. It’s just already very difficult to onboard legit btc adopters, so the black market is a market I cannot afford to consider. My company is regulated so KYC and compliance are key for me if I want to stay in business. Behind each case I push forward I am risking the credibility and reputation I have built over the years. So I am sorry guys I am not risking it to make an extra buck. Your best hope is that crypto will eventually take over the world and you won’t need to cash out anyway. Or go find a Lithuanian bank that is light on compliance and cooperative.
The OTC buyer and the libertarian. Generally a very difficult case. If you bought your stack during your journey in Japan 5 years ago to a guy you never met again; or if you accumulated on https://localbitcoins.com/ and kept no record or lost your account, it is going to be difficult. Not impossible but difficult. We will try to build a case with everything else we have, and I may be able to onboard you. However I am risking a lot here so I need to be 100% confident you are legit, before I defend you. Come & see me in Geneva, and we will talk. I will run forensic services like elliptic, chainalysis, or scorechain on an extract of your wallet. If this scan does not raise too many red flags, then maybe we can work together ! If you mixed your coins all along your crypto history, and shredded your seeds because you were paranoid, or if you made your wealth mining professionally monero over the last 3 years but never opened an account at an exchange. ¯_(ツ)_/¯ I am not a magician and don’t get me wrong, I love monero, it’s not the point.
Cashing out ICOs Private companies or foundations who have ran an ICO generally have a very hard time opening a bank account. The few banks that accept such projects would generally look at 4 criteria:
*Seriousness of the project Extensive study of the whitepaper to limit the reputation risk
*AML of the onboarding process ICOs 1.0 have no chance basically if a background check of the investors has not been conducted
*Structure of the moral entity List of signatories, certificate of incumbency, work contract, premises...
*Fiscal conformity Did the company informed the authorities and seek a fiscal ruling.
For the record, I am not into the tax avoidance business, so people come to me with a set up and I see if I can make it work within the legal framework imposed to me.
First, stop thinking Switzerland is a “offshore heaven” Swiss banks have made deals with many governments for the exchange of fiscal information. If you are a French citizen, resident in France and want to open an account in a Private Bank in Switzerland to cash out your bitcoins, you will get slaughtered (>60%). There are ways around that, and I could refer you to good tax specialists for fiscal optimization, but I cannot organize it myself. It would be illegal for me. Swiss private banks makes it easy for you to keep a good your relation with your retail bank and continue paying your bills without headaches. They are integrated to SEPA, provide ebanking and credit cards.
For information, these are the kind of set up some of my clients came up with. It’s all legal; obviously I do not onboard clients that are not tax compliant. Further disclaimer: I did not contribute myself to these set up. Do not ask me to organize it for you. I won’t.
EU tricks
Swiss lump sum taxation Foreign nationals resident in Switzerland can be taxed on a lump-sum basis if they are not gainfully employed in our country. Under the lump-sum tax regime, foreign nationals taking residence in Switzerland may choose to pay an expense-based tax instead of ordinary income and wealth tax. Attractive cantons for the lump sum taxation are Zug, Vaud, Valais, Grisons, Lucerne and Berne. To make it short, you will be paying somewhere between 200 and 400k a year and all expenses will be deductible.
Switzerland has adopted a very friendly attitude towards crypto currency in general. There is a whole crypto valley in Zug now. 30% of ICOs are operated in Switzerland. The reason is that Switzerland has thrived for centuries on banking secrecy, and today with FATCA and exchange of fiscal info with EU, banking secrecy is dead. Regulators in Switzerland have understood that digital ledger technologies were a way to roll over this competitive advantage for the generations to come. Switzerland does not tax capital gains on crypto profits. The Finma has a very pragmatic approach. They have issued guidance- updated guidelines here. They let the business get organized and operate their analysis on a case per case basis. Only after getting a deep understanding of the market will they issue a global fintech license in 2019. This approach is much more realistic than legislations which try to regulate everything beforehand.
Italy new tax exemption. It’s a brand new fiscal exemption. Go to Aoste, get residency and you could be taxed a 100k/year for 10years. Yes, really.
Portugal What’s crazy in Europe is the lack of fiscal harmonization. Even if no one in Brussels dares admit it, every other country is doing fiscal dumping. Portugal is such a country and has proved very friendly fiscally speaking. I personally have a hard time trusting Europe. I have witnessed what happened in Greece over the last few years. Some of our ultra high net worth clients got stuck with capital controls. I mean no way you got out of crypto to have your funds confiscated at the next financial crisis! Anyway. FYI
Malta Generally speaking, if you get a residence somewhere you have to live there for a certain period of time. Being stuck in Italy is no big deal with Schengen Agreement, but in Malta it is a different story. In Malta, the ordinary residence scheme is more attractive than the HNWI residence scheme. Being an individual, you can hold a residence permit under this scheme and pay zero income tax in Malta in a completely legal way.
Monaco Not suitable for French citizens, but for other Ultra High Net worth individual, Monaco is worth considering. You need an account at a local bank as a proof of fortune, and this account generally has to be seeded with at least EUR500k. You also need a proof of residence. I do mean UHNI because if you don’t cash out minimum 30m it’s not interesting. Everything is expensive in Monaco. Real Estate is EUR 50k per square meter. A breakfast at Monte Carlo Bay hotel is 70 EUR. Monaco is sunny but sometimes it feels like a golden jail. Do you really want that for your kids?
Dubaï
  1. Set up a company in Dubaï, get your resident card.
  2. Spend one day every 6 month there
  3. ???
  4. Be tax free
US tricks Some Private banks in Geneva do have the license to manage the assets of US persons and U.S citizens. However, do not think it is a way to avoid paying taxes in the US. Opening an account at an authorized Swiss Private banks is literally the same tax-wise as opening an account at Fidelity or at Bank of America in the US. The only difference is that you will avoid all the horror stories. Horror stories are all real by the way. In Switzerland, if you build a decent case and answer all the questions and corroborate your case in depth, you will manage to convince compliance officers beforehand. When the money eventually hits your account, it is actually available and not frozen.
The IRS and FATCA require to file FBAR if an offshore account is open. However FBAR is a reporting requirement and does not have taxes related to holding an account outside the US. The taxes would be the same if the account was in the US. However penalties for non compliance with FBAR are very large. The tax liability management is actually performed through the management of the assets ( for exemple by maximizing long term capital gains and minimizing short term gains).
The case for Porto Rico. Full disclaimer here. I am not encouraging this. Have not collaborated on such tax avoidance schemes. if you are interested I strongly encourage you to seek a tax advisor and get a legal opinion. I am not responsible for anything written below. I am not going to say much because I am so afraid of uncle Sam that I prefer to humbly pass the hot potato to pwc From here all it takes is a good advisor and some creativity to be tax free on your crypto wealth if you are a US person apparently. Please, please please don’t ask me more. And read the disclaimer again.
Trust tricks Generally speaking I do not accept fringe fiscal situation because it puts me in a difficult situation to the banks I work with, and it is already difficult enough to defend a legit crypto case. Trust might be a way to optimize your fiscal situation. Belize. Bahamas. Seychelles. Panama, You name it. At the end of the day, what matters for Swiss Banks are the beneficial owner and the settlor. Get a legal opinion, get it done, and when you eventually knock at a private bank’s door, don’t say it was for fiscal avoidance you stupid ! You will get the door smashed upon you. Be smarter. It will work. My advice is just to have it done by a great tax specialist lawyer, even if it costs you some money, as the entity itself needs to be structured in a professional way. Remember that with trust you are dispossessing yourself off your wealth. Not something to be taken lightly.
“Anonymous” cash out. Right. I think I am not going into this topic, neither expose the ways to get it done. Pm me for details. I already feel a bit uncomfortable with all the info I have provided. I am just going to mention many people fear that crypto exchange might become reporting entities soon, and rightly so. This might happen anyday. You have been warned. FYI, this only works for non-US and large cash out.
The difference between traders an investors. Danmark, Holland and Germany all make a huge difference if you are a passive investor or if you are a trader. ICO is considered investing for instance and is not taxed, while trading might be considered as income and charged aggressively. I would try my best to protect you and put a focus on your investor profile whenever possible, so you don't have to pay 52% tax if you do not have to :D
Full cash out or partial cash out? People who have been sitting on crypto for long have grown an emotional and irrational link with their coins. They come to me and say, look, I have 50m in crypto but I would like to cash out 500k only. So first let me tell you that as a wealth manager my advice to you is to take some off the table. Doing a partial cash out is absolutely fine. The market is bullish. We are witnessing a redistribution of wealth at a global scale. Bitcoin is the real #occupywallstreet, and every one will discuss crypto at Xmas eve which will make the market even more supportive beginning 2018, especially with all hedge funds entering the scene. If you want to stay exposed to bitcoin and altcoins, and believe these techs will change the world, it’s just natural you want to keep some coins. In the meantime, if you have lived off pizzas over the last years, and have the means to now buy yourself an nice house and have an account at a private bank, then f***ing do it mate ! Buy physical gold with this account, buy real estate, have some cash at hands. Even though US dollar is worthless to your eyes, it’s good and convenient to have some. Also remember your wife deserves it ! And if you have no wife yet and you are socially awkward like the rest of us, then maybe cashing out partially will help your situation ;)
What the Private Banks expect. Joke aside, it is important you understand something. If you come around in Zurich to open a bank account and partially cash out, just don’t expect Private Banks will make an exception for you if you are small. You can’t ask them to facilitate your cash out, buy a 1m apartment with the proceeds of the sale, and not leave anything on your current account. It won’t work. Sadly, under 5m you are considered small in private banking. The bank is ok to let you open an account, provided that your kyc and compliance file are validated, but they will also want you to become a client and leave some money there to invest. This might me despicable, but I am just explaining you their rules. If you want to cash out, you should sell enough to be comfortable and have some left. Also expect the account opening to last at least 3-4 week if everything goes well. You can't just open an account overnight.
The cash out logistics. Cashing out 1m USD a day in bitcoin or more is not so hard.
Let me just tell you this: Even if you get a Tier 4 account with Kraken and ask Alejandro there to raise your limit over $100k per day, Even if you have a bitfinex account and you are willing to expose your wealth there, Even if you have managed to pass all the crazy due diligence at Bitstamp,
The amount should be fractioned to avoid risking your full wealth on exchange and getting slaughtered on the price by trading big quantities. Cashing out involves significant risks at all time. There is a security risk of compromising your keys, a counterparty risk, a fat finger risk. Let it be done by professionals. It is worth every single penny.
Most importantly, there is a major difference between trading on an exchange and trading OTC. Even though it’s not publicly disclosed some exchange like Kraken do have OTC desks. Trading on an exchange for a large amount will weight on the prices. Bitcoin is a thin market. In my opinion over 30% of the coins are lost in translation forever. Selling $10m on an exchange in a day can weight on the prices more than you’d think. And if you trade on a exchange, everything is shown on record, and you might wipe out the prices because on exchanges like bitstamp or kraken ultimately your counterparties are retail investors and the market depth is not huge. It is a bit better on Bitfinex. It is way better to trade OTC. Accessing the institutional OTC market is not easy, and that is also the reason why you should ask a regulated financial intermediary if we are talking about huge amounts.
Last point, always chose EUR as opposed to USD. EU correspondent banks won’t generally block institutional amounts. However we had the cases of USD funds frozen or delayed by weeks.
Most well-known OTC desks are Cumberlandmining (ask for Lucas), Genesis (ask for Martin), Bitcoin Suisse AG (ask for Niklas), circletrade, B2C2, or Altcoinomy (ask for Olivier)
Very very large whales can also set up escrow accounts for massive block trades. This world, where blocks over 30k BTC are exchanged between 2 parties would deserve a reddit thread of its own. Crazyness all around.
Your options: DIY or going through a regulated financial intermediary.
Execution trading is a job in itself. You have to be patient, be careful not to wipe out the order book and place limit orders, monitor the market intraday for spikes or opportunities. At big levels, for a large cash out that may take weeks, these kind of details will save you hundred thousands of dollars. I understand crypto holders are suspicious and may prefer to do it by themselves, but there are regulated entities who now offer the services. Besides, being a crypto millionaire is not a guarantee you will get institutional daily withdrawal limits at exchange. You might, but it will take you another round of KYC with them, and surprisingly this round might be even more aggressive that the ones at Private banks since exchange have gone under intense scrutiny by regulators lately.
The fees for cashing out through a regulated financial intermediary to help you with your cash out should be around 1-2% flat on the nominal, not more. And for this price you should get the full package: execution/monitoring of the trades AND onboarding in a private bank. If you are asked more, you are being abused.
Of course, you also have the option to do it yourself. It is a way more tedious and risky process. Compliance with the exchange, compliance with the private bank, trading BTC/fiat, monitoring the transfers…You will save some money but it will take you some time and stress. Further, if you approach a private bank directly, it will trigger a series of red flag to the banks. As I said in my previous post, they call a direct approach a “walk-in”. They will be more suspicious than if you were introduced by someone and won’t hesitate to show you high fees and load your portfolio with in-house products that earn more money to the banks than to you. Remember also most banks still do not understand crypto so you will have a lot of explanations to provide and you will have to start form scratch with them!
The paradox of crypto millionaires Most of my clients who made their wealth through crypto all took massive amount of risks to end up where they are. However, most of them want their bank account to be managed with a low volatility fixed income capital preservation risk profile. This is a paradox I have a hard time to explain and I think it is mainly due to the fact that most are distrustful towards banks and financial markets in general. Many clients who have sold their crypto also have a cash-out blues in the first few months. This is a classic situation. The emotions involved in hodling for so long, the relief that everything has eventually gone well, the life-changing dynamics, the difficulties to find a new motivation in life…All these elements may trigger a post cash-out depression. It is another paradox of the crypto rich who has every card in his hand to be happy, but often feel a bit sad and lonely. Sometimes, even though it’s not my job, I had to do some psychological support. A lot of clients have also become my friends, because we have the same age and went through the same “ordeal”. First world problem I know… Remember, cashing out is not the end. It’s actually the beginning. Don’t look back, don’t regret. Cash out partially, because it does not make sense to cash out in full, regret it and want back in. relax.
The race to cash out crypto billionaire and the concept of late exiter. The Winklevoss brothers are obviously the first of a series. There will be crypto billionaires. Many of them. At a certain level you can have a whole family office working for you to manage your assets and take care of your needs . However, let me tell you it’s is not because you made it so big that you should think you are a genius and know everything better than anyone. You should hire professionals to help you. Managing assets require some education around the investment vehicles and risk management strategies. Sorry guys but with all the respect I have for wallstreebet, AMD and YOLO stock picking, some discipline is necessary. The investors who have made money through crypto are generally early adopters. However I have started to see another profile popping up. They are not early adopters. They are late exiters. It is another way but just as efficient. Last week I met the first crypto millionaire I know who first bough bitcoin over 1000$. 55k invested at the beginning of this year. Late adopter & late exiter is a route that can lead to the million.
Last remarks. I know banks, bankers, and FIAT currencies are so last century. I know some of you despise them and would like to have them burn to the ground. With compliance officers taking over the business, I would like to start the fire myself sometimes. I hope this extensive guide has helped some of you. I am around if you need more details. I love my job despite all my frustration towards the banking industry because it makes me meet interesting people on a daily basis. I am a crypto enthusiast myself, and I do think this tech is here to stay and will change the world. Banks will have to adapt big time. Things have started to change already; they understand the threat is real. I can feel the generational gap in Geneva, with all these old bankers who don’t get what’s going on. They glaze at the bitcoin chart on CNBC in disbelief and they start to get it. This bitcoin thing is not a joke. Deep inside, as an early adopter who also intends to be a late exiter, as a libertarian myself, it makes me smile with satisfaction.
Cheers. @swisspb on telegram
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The Essence of How Bitcoin Works (Non-Technical) - YouTube Bitcoin Quotes By Famous People How to Install A Litecoin Wallet On Windows How to Send Bitcoin from Coinbase [2020] Quick Fix  Bitconnect QT Wallet Out of Sync ️ Mac OSX

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The Essence of How Bitcoin Works (Non-Technical) - YouTube

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